A forest, also referred to as a wood or the woods, is an area with a high density of trees. As with cities, depending on various cultural definitions, what is considered a forest may vary significantly in size and have different classifications according to how and of what the forest is composed.
A forest is usually an area filled with trees but any tall densely packed area of vegetation may be considered a forest, even underwater vegetation such as kelp forests, or non-vegetation such as fungiand bacteria. Tree forests cover approximately 9.4 percent of the Earth’s surface (or 30 percent of total land area), though they once covered much more (about 50 percent of total land area). They function as habitats for organisms, hydrologic flow modulators, and soil conservers, constituting one of the most important aspects of the biosphere.
A typical tree forest is composed of the overstory (canopy or upper tree layer) and the understory. The understory is further subdivided into the shrub layer, herb layer, and also the moss layer and soil microbes. In some complex forests, there is also a well-defined lower tree layer. Forests are central to all human life because they provide a diverse range of resources: they store carbon, aid in regulating the planetary climate, purify water and mitigate natural hazards such as floods. Forests also contain roughly 90 percent of the world’s terrestrial biodiversity. (sources: wikipedia)
In Province of North Sumatra and Aceh, we have a large forest and very famous in the world. This sites is a World Rainforest Heritage and named Gunung Leuser National Park. Gunung Leuser in Aceh and North Sumatra is one of the last Rainforest Systems on Sumatra, which provides base for healthy populations of Sumatra Orang Utan, Sumatra Tiger, Sumatra Elephant, Sumatra Rhino, as well as many other endangered species on this island.
The park area starts at an altitude of 0m in Kluet and reaches up to 3.404m to the peak of Gunung Leuser, which gave the area its name.
Pristine and untouched rainforests are hosts to an immense Biodiversity of more than 170 mammals, 320 birds and 190 reptiles and amphibians. 7 mayor river systems are floating from the heart of the Leuser Eco System to the east and west coast of Sumatra. Several volcanoes are bedded within the Bukit Barisan mountains. Among the 10.000 plant species recorded in the West Indo Malayan Region, appr 45% can be found in this Eco System.